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Impact of Sex and Gonadal Steroids on Neonatal Brain Structure

Department of Psychiatry, University of North Texas at Denton, Denton, TX, USA.
Oxford University Press
Publication Date:
Cereb Cortex
Volume Number:
Issue Number:
Cereb Cortex. 2014 Oct;24(10):2721-31.
PubMed ID:
androgen, gender, neonate, neuroimaging, sex
Appears in Collections:
K01 MH083045/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/United States
P01 CA142538/CA/NCI NIH HHS/United States
P30 HD003110/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/United States
P50 MH064065/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/United States
R01 MH070890/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/United States
R01 MH086633/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/United States
R01 MH091645/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/United States
R01 MH092335/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/United States
R21 AG033387/AG/NIA NIH HHS/United States
U54 EB005149/EB/NIBIB NIH HHS/United States
UL1 RR025747/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/United States
Generated Citation:
Knickmeyer R.C., Wang J., Zhu H., Geng X., Woolson S., Hamer R.M., Konneker T., Styner M., Gilmore J.H. Impact of Sex and Gonadal Steroids on Neonatal Brain Structure. Cereb Cortex. 2014 Oct;24(10):2721-31. PMID: 23689636. PMCID: PMC4153808.
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There are numerous reports of sexual dimorphism in brain structure in children and adults, but data on sex differences in infancy are extremely limited. Our primary goal was to identify sex differences in neonatal brain structure. Our secondary goal was to explore whether brain structure was related to androgen exposure or sensitivity. Two hundred and ninety-three neonates (149 males) received high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging scans. Sensitivity to androgen was measured using the number of cytosine, adenine, guanine (CAG) triplets in the androgen receptor gene and the ratio of the second to fourth digit, provided a proxy measure of prenatal androgen exposure. There was a significant sex difference in intracranial volume of 5.87%, which was not related to CAG triplets or digit ratios. Tensor-based morphometry identified extensive areas of local sexual dimorphism. Males had larger volumes in medial temporal cortex and rolandic operculum, and females had larger volumes in dorsolateral prefrontal, motor, and visual cortices. Androgen exposure and sensitivity had minor sex-specific effects on local gray matter volume, but did not appear to be the primary determinant of sexual dimorphism at this age. Comparing our study with the existing literature suggests that sex differences in cortical structure vary in a complex and highly dynamic way across the human lifespan.

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