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Epileptogenic Focus Localization in Treatment-resistant Post-traumatic Epilepsy

The Institute for Neuroimaging and Informatics, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
Elsevier Science
Publication Date:
J Clin Neurosci
Volume Number:
Issue Number:
J Clin Neurosci. 2015 Apr;22(4):627-31.
PubMed ID:
Electroencephalography, Epileptogenesis, Inverse localization, Pharmacological resistance, Post-traumatic epilepsy, Traumatic brain injury
Appears in Collections:
R41 NS081792/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/United States
U54 EB005149/EB/NIBIB NIH HHS/United States
P41 EB015922/EB/NIBIB NIH HHS/United States
Generated Citation:
Irimia A., Van Horn J.D. Epileptogenic Focus Localization in Treatment-resistant Post-traumatic Epilepsy. J Clin Neurosci. 2015 Apr;22(4):627-31. PMID: 25542591. PMCID: PMC4380645.
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Pharmacologically intractable post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE) is a major clinical challenge for patients with penetrating traumatic brain injury, where the risk for this condition remains very high even decades after injury. Although over 20 anti-epileptic drugs (AED) are in common use today, approximately one-third of epilepsy patients have drug-refractory seizures and even more have AED-related adverse effects which compromise life quality. Simultaneously, there have been repeated recommendations by radiologists and neuroimaging experts to incorporate localization based on electroencephalography (EEG) into the process of clinical decision making regarding PTE patients. Nevertheless, thus far, little progress has been accomplished towards the use of EEG as a reliable tool for locating epileptogenic foci prior to surgical resection. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology of pharmacologically resistant PTE, address the need for effective anti-epileptogenic treatments, and highlight recent progress in the development of noninvasive methods for the accurate localization of PTE foci for the purpose of neurosurgical intervention. These trends indicate the current emergence of promising methodologies for the noninvasive study of post-traumatic epileptogenesis and for the improved neurosurgical planning of epileptic foci resection.