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Comparison of 3D Echocardiogram-Derived 3D Printed Valve Models to Molded Models for Simulated Repair of Pediatric Atrioventricular Valves

Institution:
1Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
2Laboratory for Percutaneous Surgery, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, Canada.
3Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
4Department of Radiology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
5Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
Publisher:
Springer
Publication Date:
Mar-2018
Journal:
Pediatr Cardiol
Volume Number:
39
Issue Number:
3
Pages:
538-47
Citation:
Pediatr Cardiol. 2018 Mar;39(3):538-47.
PubMed ID:
29181795
PMCID:
PMC5831483
Keywords:
3D echocardiography, 3D printing, Surgical simulation, Valve repair
Appears in Collections:
NAC, SLICER
Sponsors:
P41 EB015902/EB/NIBIB NIH HHS/United States
Generated Citation:
Scanlan A.B., Nguyen A.V., Ilina A., Lasso A., Cripe L., Jegatheeswaran A., Silvestro E., McGowan F.X., Mascio C.E., Fuller S., Spray T.L., Cohen M.S., Fichtinger G., Jolley M.A. Comparison of 3D Echocardiogram-Derived 3D Printed Valve Models to Molded Models for Simulated Repair of Pediatric Atrioventricular Valves. Pediatr Cardiol. 2018 Mar;39(3):538-47. PMID: 29181795. PMCID: PMC5831483.
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Mastering the technical skills required to perform pediatric cardiac valve surgery is challenging in part due to limited opportunity for practice. Transformation of 3D echocardiographic (echo) images of congenitally abnormal heart valves to realistic physical models could allow patient-specific simulation of surgical valve repair. We compared materials, processes, and costs for 3D printing and molding of patient-specific models for visualization and surgical simulation of congenitally abnormal heart valves. Pediatric atrioventricular valves (mitral, tricuspid, and common atrioventricular valve) were modeled from transthoracic 3D echo images using semi-automated methods implemented as custom modules in 3D Slicer. Valve models were then both 3D printed in soft materials and molded in silicone using 3D printed "negative" molds. Using pre-defined assessment criteria, valve models were evaluated by congenital cardiac surgeons to determine suitability for simulation. Surgeon assessment indicated that the molded valves had superior material properties for the purposes of simulation compared to directly printed valves (pā€‰<ā€‰0.01). Patient-specific, 3D echo-derived molded valves are a step toward realistic simulation of complex valve repairs but require more time and labor to create than directly printed models. Patient-specific simulation of valve repair in children using such models may be useful for surgical training and simulation of complex congenital cases.